December 22, 2009

Classification of Materials

In this section we will discuss about the classification of materials. Before entering into the subject I wanted to ask the readers? what the definition of material? and what do you know about the material? this is very important for the answer before sharing materials.

Okay, because our discussion of metallurgy and materials engineering is only natural that we define what we mean material are :
  • Materials are everywhere around us – make up our world--
  • The substance or substances out of which a thing is or can be made [1]
  • Things needed for doing or making something [2]
For those who want to add definition of material please comment below and please include the source or the reference

Now go into the main subject discussion, at the classified material by the following experts in view of the nature (properties). Material divided in six separated major classes of materials: metals, polymers, ceramic, composite, semiconductor, alloy. All of them have different characteristics. Table below can help show the difference that the six classes of material:

Solid materials have been conveniently grouped into three basic classifications based primarily on chemical makeup and the atomic bonding forces of a particular material, and most materials fall into one distinct grouping or another, although there are some intermediates.

These three classifications are metallic, ceramic and polymeric.

In addition, there are the composites, combination
of two or more of the above three basic material classes. Another classification is advanced materials—those used in high-technology applications— . semiconductors, biomaterials, smart materials, and nanoengineered materials.

Within each of these classifications, materials are often further organized into groups based on their chemical composition or certain physical or mechanical properties. But we will not discuss it now.

Below is a list of some of the commonly classification of materials within these four general groups of materials.

  • Ferrous metals and alloys (irons, carbon steels, alloy steels, stainless steels, tool and die steels)
  • Nonferrous metals and alloys (aluminum, copper, magnesium, nickel, titanium, precious metals, refractory metals, superalloys)
  • Thermoplastics plastics

  • Thermoset plastics

  • Elastomers
  • Glasses
  • Glass ceramics
  • Graphite
  • Diamond
  • Reinforced plastics
  • Metal-matrix composites
  • Ceramic-matrix composites
  • Sandwich structures
  • Concrete

Insya Allah, next post we will discuss the outline of each class of material on top.


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