October 22, 2010

Copper Ore Processing

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

Copper Ore Processing

Indonesia has ore reserves of copper (Cu) is very large, mostly in the reserves with porphyry Cu content in the ore varied between 0.1 to 2%. In addition to Cu, usually ore assosiate  with other metals such as gold (Au), Silver (Ag) and rare metals such as Palladium (Pd), Selenium (Se) and others. Several types of copper ore that there is Bornite (Cu5FeS4), Calcopyrite (CuFeS2), Covellite (CUS) with some impurities such as pyrite (FeS2), Magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), or Quartz (SiO2). Caused mostly sulfide minerals will be more effective if the initial process is done is "Concentration" by using flotation and gravity, if indeed in many gold ores (Au) in the form of Native.

Froth Flotation is Physical Chemistry methode to separate achieve mineral and impurities by use the mineral interface difference. The mineral that is very easy to absord the water is called by Hydrofillic, and the other is Hydrofobic. The Hydrofillic particles will be in the pulp, and the others will be at the air bulb and flow to the atmospheric surface. Usually, we use the reagents to make the interface particles become hydrofillic or hydrofobic. The reagents that we use in flotation are: collector, frother and modifier such as activator, pH regulator, depresant dan dispersant. 

Froth Flotation for copper with a reagent Xanthate, other reagents can be used to take copper ore in particular, as examples of mercapto benzo Tyazone (MBT) is effective for taking Bornite and Calcopyrite. In general, the flotation process for copper ores is as follows

Gambar 1. Flotasi flowsheet Diagram

For companies that have a direct smelting process, the concentrate obtained can be melted directly, but for companies that do not have a smelting facility usually concentrates sold at the International and recovery (discount) market (subject to negotiation as well). There are several processes that exist in this world for the continuous smelting technology, one of which is the Mitsubishi Process in PT. Smelting Gresik. Other technologies is Flash Conventer and Flash Smelter of Outotek (Outocumpu). Whatever the technology used, but the plan is a process that is taken is the oxidation process

2CuS + 3O2 = 2CuO + 2SO2
CuO + Flux = Cu + Slag
SO2 + H2O + ½ O2 = H2SO4

Of course not only that the reaction occurs, many other minerals that react but the point remains the same. If viewed from a possible reaction occurs, then surely nothing is wasted from the process of smelting copper concentrates this. The gas produced can be captured to become sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for sale to fertilizer factories, which produced Slag cement can be mixed and sold to Cement Plant, Energy generated from the reaction exotherm was used for the power plant to meet the needs of further processing. It was the right PT. Established Smelting in Gresik, near the PT. Petrochemical and PT. Semen Gresik. Besides all that, there is also produced that have a content of Anode Slime Au, Ag and rare metals with high enough levels. So the differences existing technology is just about the resulting efficiency.
The following example process flow diagram which is owned by Outotek

Figure 2. Copper Smelting Process

Until now there is no processing of Anode Slime in Indonesia with Recovery> 99.2% so that the anode slime produced by PT. Smelting was currently still purified (sold) out of the country. There are several ways that can be used to retrieve Au, Ag and rare metals namely hidrometallurgical route and path Pyro-hidrometallurgycal . Hopefully in the future Indonesia has and can process from ore to pure metal is produced either Cu, Au, Ag, Pd, Se, etc.. The problem is there is not a technology problem because many Indonesian people who are good and experienced. The biggest problem is the power of funding and political Issue.

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July 27, 2010

Site Map

  بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

This Site Map i created to facilitate all of our visitor to access in simple way. Visitor can choose the suitable content easier by reading the summary of the post by clicking the link. I hope it useful..


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July 20, 2010

Macam-macam Korosi Dan Penyebabnya

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

Korosi adalah kerusakan atau degradasi suatu material (khususnya logam) akibat reaksi reduksi-oksidasi  dengan lingkungannya.

Tentunya mekanisme terjadinya korosi tidak hanya sebatas reaksi redoks saja, tetapi ada berbagai mekanisme lain. Perbedaan mekanisme terjadinya korosi inilah yang menimbulkan adanya berbagai jenis korosi yang ada. Pada postingan kali ini saya sisipkan tulisan berkenaan tentang jenis-jenis korosi dan penyebabnya. Semoga bermanfaat.
Macam-macam Korosi Dan Penyebabnya

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July 8, 2010

Thermodynamics of Materials (Lecture note )

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم
Thermodynamics began with the study of heat and work effects and relations between heat and work. 
You can find more about thermodynamics here, i only post a link that might you downloaded. Be patientwhile  downloading it :p

Lecture note Download
Inroduction & solution link
1st lecture
2nd Lecture link
3rd Lecture link
Problem-solution 1st link
Problem-solution 2nd

4rd Lecture link
Over View link

I hope i can add more for the next post :)

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May 24, 2010

Problem Transport Phenomena

Silahkan buat teman-teman semua di pelajari lagi ^^

May 23, 2010

Grade Efficiency in mineral processing

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم
enjoy this lecture-^^

Grade Efficiency-Mineral Processing -  
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Iron Steel Making (lecture note)

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم
 Hi guys, this time I only post a link that might you downloaded. I wanted to show them directly on this page, but because there are errors in the media file hosting so as not to be read here. I use a other media file hosting , be patientwhile  downloading it :p.

Lecture note Download
Inroduction link
Bijih besi dan aglomerisasi link
Termodinamik&kinetik Reduksi  link
Blast furnace (tanur tinggi ) link
Reduksi langsung link
Bahan Pembuatan Baja link
Electric Arc Furnace & BOF link
Desulphurisasi & Dephosphorisasi link
Degassing link
Deoksidadi link
Secunder metallurgy link
Hot &  Cold Rolling link

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May 14, 2010

Elimination Reaction Vs Substituion Reaction

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

elimination rx vs substitution rx -  

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May 5, 2010

Reaksi Eliminasi- kimia Organik

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

 Dengan berlatih kita bisa ^^
kata bu sari, Kimia organik itu mudah :)

Reaksi Eliminasi- Kimia Organik -  
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Froth flotation- Theory -Mineral Processing

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

Froth flotation is a surface-chemistry based process of separation of fine solids that takes advantage of the differences in wettability at solid particle-surfaces. If you want to know more about Froth flotation  please read the document below, hopefully useful :)

Forth Flotation , Theory (mineral Processing) -  

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May 4, 2010

Polymers Characteristic and Classification

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

Polymer Chemistry_1_ -

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May 3, 2010

Aim of Test Procedur

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

 In the scientific world, the accuracy of the data is very important and one way to obtain data by conducting proseduce testing, but you already know the purpose of testing procedures?
check this out!

aim of test procedur -  

Source : Kelas pak badru munir
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Introduction to SIMULINK

 بسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

I'm sure you all already know about matlab, but are you familiar  with simulink? that in fact it is a part of an integral matlab. to be more familiar with simulink please read the below doc


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April 29, 2010

Sifat Optik Polimer Dan Pengaruh Lingkungan

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

Sifat Optik Dan Pengaruh Lingkungan                                                            

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April 2, 2010

Polymer Class

Severalcommon objects that are made of polymeric materials: plastic tableware (spoon, fork, and knife), billiard balls, a bicycle helmet, two dice, a lawnmower wheel (plastic hub and rubber tire), and a plastic milk carton. (Photography by S. Tanner.)

Now, we are talking about the third class of material, polymer. Before we discuss about this class, we have to know what polymer is.
Definition :
The word polymer literally means "many parts." So that’s why it call poly-because it consist of many part of monomer.
Another definition is:
Any of numerous natural and synthetic compounds of usually high molecular weight consisting of up to millions of repeated linked units, each a relatively light and simple molecule.[1]-
A molecule that consists of repeated, linked units, with each unit being called a monomer.
A material that contains many chemically bonded parts or units which themselves are bonded together to form a solid. [3]-

Polymers have properties that distinguish with other materials.
Polymer are:
  • less dense than metals or ceramics,
  • resist atmospheric and other forms of corrosion,
  • offer good compatibility with human tissue,
  • exhibit excellent resistance to the conduction of electrical current,
  • extremely ductile and pliable (i.e., plastic), which means they are easily formed
    into complex shapes,
  • have low electrical conductivities
A single polymer molecule may consist of hundreds to a million monomers and may have a linear, branched, or network structure.

Atomic Bond:
Covalent bonds hold the atoms in the polymer molecules together and secondary bonds then hold groups of polymer chains together to form the polymeric material. Copolymers are polymers composed of two or more different types of monomers.



February 17, 2010

Lowongan di Mcdermott

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم



The biggest offshore fabricator in Indonesia and one of the largest offshore
construction companies in the world requires proficient, efficient, and
highly motivated individuals for the following position


* *


- Graduate from reputable university with GPA > 3

- Have hold similar experience for at least 1 year

- Strong character, teamwork and problem solving skill

If your vision of a work environment includes the challenges which can lead
to personal growth, respect for ideas, and colleagues who rank with the
best, then please send your application and resume, *quoting position title*,
with copy of qualification certificates and recent photograph (4x6cm) no
later than 2 weeks to:



Jalan Bawal - Batu Ampar - Batam 29452

Email:hrd.batam@ mcdermott**

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January 31, 2010

Oil and Gas Jobs for Agency -Job Seeker

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

hello, in this post, we will discuss about our work, or I prefer to call our future work :). Yeah, we like our main course of our work related to our core competence. I'm talking about on this site we will know all about the job offered by many oil and gas companies worldwide.In this site we not only can find a job which is being offered, even for companies looking for employees, can advertise here for free!

For job seekers candidate please sign in or directly click the link below -Candidate- while seekers employees / companies can fill in the recruiter or directly click the following link -Recruiter-

Author was a direct attempt to fill the candidate, because it is also very interested to work in the oil and gas company (the salary i mean..hehe) , who knows after writing this review I could get a job from ^ ^

This site was impressive for me, for having facilitated to seek the job and soon you in finding a job or for a company to offer and look for your employees.I recommend for the job seeker, you often visit this site because in homepage contain latest hot jobs that are on offer, with the location detail. But for the moment still a beta version.

ok, i hope it's useful for all of you

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January 6, 2010

All About Size

بِسمٍ الله الرَحْمنِ اللرَحِيْم

usually we learn only the material around us, and the day after day we make a material that is smaller and smaller "nano materials", which has an significant effect on the application.

But have you ever thinking about our size? how big the size of the material we learned when we compared to us? or even our size when compared to universe ! you should see this video.This is the ultimate size comparison video that you can find on the internet in HD. Starts with the tinyest dwarf planets of our solar system, then continues.

or another video

after watching this video i remember my reason for choosing metallurgy and materials engineering that when i learn about material (anything around us) we know that there is something behind this creature, absolutely the power of GOD (Allah)and it make me more closer to Him. insya Allah.

Read: why i choose metallurgy an material engineering

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January 1, 2010

Ceramics Class

بِسم الله الرَحْمنِ الرَحِيْم


This word "Ceramic" was derived from Greek word "Keramikos", which is derived from "Keramon" or "Keramos", meaning "Argil"[1] or pottery.

Another definition is 
Any of various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant materials made by shaping and then firing a nonmetallic mineral, such as clay, at a high temperature.[2]

But, a ceramic has traditionally been defined as “an inorganic, nonmetallic solid that is prepared from powdered materials, is fabricated into products through the application of heat, and displays such characteristic properties as hardness, strength, low electrical conductivity, and brittleness." 


Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous (e.g., a glass). Because most common ceramics are crystalline, the definition of ceramic is often restricted to inorganic crystalline materials, as opposed to the non-crystalline glasses. 

They are most frequently oxide,nitrides, and carbides. For example, some of the common ceramic materials include aluminum oxide (or alumina, Al2O3), silicon dioxide (or silica, SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), silicon nitride (Si3N4).


Ceramic materials can be subdivided into traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics are composed of clay minerals (i.e., porcelain), and other natural occuring materials. Clay-base materials such as brick, tile, sanitary ware, dinnerware, clay pipe, and electrical porcelain. Common-usage glass, cement, abrasives, and refractories are also important classes of traditional ceramics.

Advanced ceramics are tailored to have premium properties through application of advanced materials science and technology to control composition and internal structure. Examples of advanced ceramic materials are silicon nitride, silicon carbide, toughened zirconia, zirconia-toughened alumina, aluminum nitride, lead magnesium niobate, lead lanthanum zirconate titanate, silicon-carbide-whisker-reinforced alumina, carbon-fiber-reinforced glass ceramic, silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide, and high-temperature superconductors. 

Properties : 

Ceramic materials are relatively stiff and strong in compression comparable to those of the metals and weak in shearing an tension. In addition, ceramics are typically very hard. On the other hand, they are extremely brittle (lack ductility), and are highly susceptible to fracture. These materials are typically insulative to the passage of heat and electricity (i.e., have low electrical conductivities, ), and are more resistant to high temperatures and harsh environments than metals and polymers.  With regard to optical characteristics, ceramics may be transparent, translucent, or opaque and some of the oxide ceramics (e.g., Fe3O4) exhibit magnetic behavior.

Atomic Bonding:

The atoms in ceramic materials are held together by a chemical bond  Briefly though, the two most common chemical bonds for ceramic materials are covalent and ionic. Covalent and ionic bonds are much stronger than in metallic bonds and, generally speaking, this is why ceramics are brittle and metals are ductile.



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